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Monthly Bulletin - October 2015

Sudanese-American relations

 

 

  • The Special Unit report at the Economist magazine, said that lifting of US sanctions imposed on Sudan is difficult in the near future, pointing out that in this mid-year, Washington re-included Sudan on the list of state sponsoring terrorism. According to the United States the announced reason is that Sudan fails in ending the war in Darfur, Blue Nile and South Kordofan.
  • The report said that Washington's concern about the situation in southern Sudan will push to lay some procedures that could lead to a slight improvement in its relations with Sudan. The report predicted that the US might renew sanctions on Sudan, with a few exceptions in the list of the ban as it did last year.
  • The unit pointed out the report issued by the US State Department  stated (that the ability of the Sudanese authorities to monitor financial transfers may have been adversely affected because of the difficulties faced the Sudanese banks due to US economic sanctions), indicating that transfers control is one of the most crucial American demands to combat terrorism.
  • The decision of the International Financial Action Task Force (FATF- based in Paris), charged of following up the commitment of States combating money laundering and financing terrorism, pushed positively the removal of the name of Sudan from the list of countries that have deficiencies in their financial systems in combating against money laundering and terrorist financing, and thus Sudan would fulfilled, according to international standards, all the conditions required for dealing with money laundering and financing of terrorism. Add to that the British position which also demands the lifting of economic sanctions on Sudan; all these steps encourage seriously lifting the unilateral sanctions on Sudan.
  • The United States position toward the Sudanese national dialogue was largely compatible with the African Union's position, then the government called for the necessity of leading a comprehensive dialogue which includes all the stakeholders, and has adopted the revolutionary front position in the cessation of military operations for six months instead of two months, when the Sudanese government agreed to the six months; a large number of armed movements involved in the dialogue. The United States suddenly adopted, according to the American charge d'affaires in Khartoum the process of persuading the other movements to participate in the national dialogue.

Demonstrations of black Americans in the United States

  • The United States has witnessed since August 1, 2015 protest marches of hundreds of thousands of black Americans and other Americans ethnicities, including white American. These marches have been preceded by a youth demonstration launched in front of the White House on December 13, 2014 condemning racism and lack of justice.
  • These marches expressed rejection of the violation of the black American human rights and all kinds of racist crimes of persecution and vulgar white police behavior against them, intending to kill American blacks by shooting them, the past year, in Missouri and Astatine Island in New York.
  • Marches began in Alabama, under the leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of nationalists in the United States, then it soon expanded into the southern states, and it ended by organizing the    (Selma) conference in Alabama.
  • The importance of (Selma) city dates back to the civil rights movement during the sixties of the last century to attract attention to the issue of inequality and racism in the United States. The conference came under the slogan (The American trip toward justice).
  • The marches were accompanied by meetings and seminars in the states of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia before the arrival of the protesters to Washington, they waved banners bearing the phrases (No justice no peace ..) (Racism is disease and revolution is the solution), (Stop killer cops).
  • In October 2015, thousands of black Americans led by Louis Farrakhan the leader of the movement (Nation of Islam), gathered in Washington near the headquarters of the Congress demanding justice and equality after police has targeted black Americans, despite the real reason was the announcement of the demonstration which Farrakhan led, 20 years ago and roamed Washington, denouncing racism and economic injustice,.
  • During the march of October 10 Farrakhan said: (This is not a march but a gathering of community seeking justice), adding: (if they refuse to give us what we deserve, we should do our best to unify our action to impose justice that we seek). The protesters demanded to amend the law, which authorizes the use of force, calling also for the provision of a healthy and well-educated better care for poor people. This attitude reflected the political tension expressed by a large number of blacks.

Republicans loose the battle of the conflict over the nuclear deal with Iran

  • The Republicans did not succeed in disrupting the nuclear agreement concluded by the West, led by the United States with Iran, since Republicans have not been able to attract a sufficient number of Democrats to achieve a two-thirds majority needed to override the presidential veto on the US to pass the law concerning the implementation of the nuclear deal with Iran. The Republicans won 58 votes, whereas it is required to obtain 60 votes to disrupt the law of the implementation of the agreement.
  • The reason beyond the rejection of this agreement by the Republican in the United States is their political partnership with the Israeli lobby in the United States, the Republicans submitted, previously, Israeli conditioned requests to accept the final agreement between the six major powers (America, China, Russia, France, Britain and Germany) with Iran about its nuclear program, but Iran’s recognition of the State of Israel should be the principal element of these requirements.
  • In a related context, US Secretary of State John Kerry announced the appointment of Ambassador Stephen Mall US coordinator for the implementation of the major agreement with Iran on its nuclear program.
  • In virtue of this agreement, which was signed last July, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations sanctions imposed on Iran would be lifted. In turn, Iran should approve for long-term restrictions on its nuclear program.
  • Some political analysts said that Western support for this agreement represents a defeat for the Republicans as well as Israel.
  • In the other side, 161 members of Iran's Islamic Shura Council approved the agreement, while 59 opposed it (all of them conservatives), while 13 members expressed their abstention.

American Russian rivalry in Syria

  • The United States was coordinating support and training for Syrian opposition forces operations, in cooperation with Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey. When state movement organization began to expand its activities and operations inside Syrian territory, the US-led coalition forces began to launch raids on ISIS military sites.
  • Suddenly, the United States announced that it would stop training and arming the Syrian opposition temporarily program, hoping to restore the program when circumstances permit that.
  • On October 9, 2015 US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter announced that: US President Barack Obama agreed to make several changes in training and equipping the Syrian opposition fighters Program (selected, Mu’tadila), which was suspended because of its disappointing results.
  • Meanwhile, the US State Department said that its intention to arm the selected group (Mu’tadila) from the Syrian opposition does not put in term, definitively, the previous training process. Also it confirmed that there is no change in the US strategy in fighting ISIS.
  • From the other hand, Russian foreign minister considered the tension in the Middle East is increasingly continuing, and this will be in the interest of, only, terrorist groups such as Al-Nusra Front and ISIS. Russia also refuses to get rid of al- Assad without guarantees and arrangements to avoid the Libyan scenario.
  • He added that Russia is concerned by the decision of US President Barack Obama to allow US Airways to attack Syrian government forces under the pretext of protecting the armed groups called the (Mu’tadila), which have been rehabilitated, trained and supported by the American military experts.
  • He pointed out the necessity to adopt the Russian vision related to unification of efforts of all the partners involved in fighting terrorists, particularly those who are in areas where the fight against terrorism takes place, such as the Syrian army , the Kurds and the Iraqi army , he also said that it was important to form a united front to face the organization the Islamic state, but that should be done in accordance with the activation of a meaningful political process to resolve the crisis in virtue to Geneva Convention June 30, 2014.
  • Basing on the authorization granted to President Putin by the Supreme Council of the Russian Parliament, which authorizes him to use the air force outside the boundaries Russia, the Russian air forces began, on September 30, 2015, to launch raids on ISIS forces sites inside Syria after receiving the request of the Syrian government of military intervention.. Now dozens of Russian aircraft launched daily raids on Syrian opposition and ISIS sites.
  • The developments in the military scene inside Syria is reflected by the huge Russian military existence in Syria, not only related with air operations, but also in processing the huge military barracks , airport construction , the entry of armored vehicles and support of the Syrian defense system by using modern Russian technologies.
  • Iran announced also its readiness for military intervention, under Damascus request. The Chairman of the National Security and Foreign Policy Committee at the Council Iranian of Shura, Ala eddin Boroujerdi said that Iran's policy in fighting against terrorism in Iraq and Syria is clear, and had already supported them with weapons and advisers, now there are about 1,500 of the Revolutionary Guards fighting with Bashar. At the same time, the Lebanese Hezbollah announced that it would send more troops and reinforcements to Syria.
  • Obama expressed the American reaction toward these developments, saying that the military solution chosen by Russia and Iran in Syria to promote the power of President Bashar al-Assad would be a real trap for both of them and may continue for a long time. Obama added that the air strikes directed by Russia against the Syrian opposition are not constructive and minimize the opportunities of the solution desired by all parties.
  • In a press conference at the White House Obama said that the tension and views differences between the United States and Russia will continue, but we do not want to make Syria a place of a proxy war between the United States and Russia.
  • President Obama confirms that President Bashar al-Assad's violence against the Syrian people is the real problem (here) and that the United States is not willing to cooperate with a Russian campaign that simply tries to eliminate all the forces that are trying to remove Assad regime.
  • Several contacts and meetings, at the level of the ministries of defense and foreign affairs, have been conducted in order to coordinate air traffic operations security over the Syrian airspace fear of targeting one another, and for consulting on an agreed basis to determine the political way to find a  peaceful settlement of the crisis.
  • The governments of: France, Germany, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Britain and the United States issued a statement expressing their rejection of Russia's new visions in Syria, and demanded Russia to, immediately halt its attacks against the Syrian opposition and civilians, and to focus its efforts in the fight against the organization of the Islamic state.
  • Despite the compatible China's position on the Syrian issue with Russia at the Security Council, Russia does not agree nor with the mess that took place there neither for the expansion of military operations in Syria, as described by People newspaper of the ruling Communist Party, as a proxy war between the United States and Russia, and represents an attempt to return to the era of cold war, inviting the international community to exercise pressure toward a peaceful settlement.
  • In an interview with Al-Jazeera Channel, the Turkish President Rajab Tayyip Erdogan expressed his resentment vis a vis the Russian raids aimed at strengthening the centralization of Syrian regime, explaining that Assad has no place in any settlement of the Syrian problem.
  • In a related context, Dr. Ibrahim Ahmed Omar, head of the Sudanese National Council said that they do not oppose the air strikes carried out by Russia against terrorist groups in Syria. At the same time they do not support the absolute military intervention, as the military option is not sufficient, other non-military options must be adopted, and the political settlement must be achieved.
  • The unclear American position towards the Syrian crisis does not satisfy the main US allies in the region, led by Saudi Arabia who justified the Russian military intervention as a result of the gap, which the United States and its allies have not been able to fill. So, Assad regime would continue for long time, add to that, the US agreement on Iran's nuclear program, which satisfied US allies in the region.
  • Internally, President Obama faced wide criticism by Republicans, the British newspaper (The Guardian) reported that Sen. John McCain said: (the White House ostracizes America from leading the world; giving the way to Russia, and Putin's decision of military intervention in Syria to support the regime of Bashar is a sign of contempt for Washington).

 

US-China relations

  • Since the announcement of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese- American relations witnessed different states: hostility, containment, integration and cooperation in bilateral, regional and international issues. The recent visit of Chinese President Xi Jin ping to the United States from 22 to 25 September 2015 attracted the international attention and reviews of some experts and concerned persons about the nature of developments in the relationship of the two countries. During deep talks between the US and Chinese sides, they confirmed the need for cooperation and coordination at the international and regional level (Asia-Pacific) and in the bilateral framework.
  • The two parties affirmed that the United Nations must be the only mechanism agreed upon to achieve international peace and security and it should pledge required support and assistance. Also cooperation in fighting against terrorism, the exchange of experiences and information, to activate joint mechanisms, as well as the fight against cybercrime.
  • The two sides emphasized on the activation of cooperation in the field of environment and to deal positively, with the issue of climate change, cooperation and coordination to ensure the success of Paris conference on climate change, achieving comprehensive and sustainable development and the fight against poverty.
  • It is necessary to share action to achieve security, stability and progress for Asia and the Pacific. The United States declares its support to China candidacy for presidency of Group 20 in 2016. Both sides agree on the need to coordinate support for Afghanistan in order to achieve security and stability and press Taliban to engage in the political process and participate in elections.
  • The two sides confirmed the importance of positive interaction and comprehensive cooperation as they shared and face common interests and challenges in the region; therefore, it is necessary to deepen the dialogue on these issues.
  • In the bilateral context, the two sides discussed the basis of economic cooperation, funding issues and how to deal with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. A number of agreements related to aviation have been signed. A memorandum of understanding to enhance strategic cooperation in civil aviation was signed between the Chinese National Commission for Development and Reform Commission and Boeing American Company. An agreement between the two sides for the purchase of 300 Boeing aircraft from the United States, compiling 737 Max aircraft, and fabrication of structures i 747 – 8, has been signed. Add to all that, the cooperation in the maritime field.
  • During the visit of President Xi, a 3 days conference was organized to discuss the frameworks of strategic and economic cooperation. In this context, some US officials warned of China's persistent attempts to bridge the technological gaps. US Deputy Secretary of Defense said that China has been working to develop anti-radar aircraft, advanced aircraft, sophisticated missiles, and has the latest electronic warfare equipment. He added, however, the United States looks forward to build good relations with China.
  • It is known that the economy of both countries depends on each other; China reveals that its first economic partner is the United States who considers China is its third economic partner. China owns US bonds of trillion dollars; their commercial exchange is $ 400 billion.
  • Chinese strategy toward the United States based on strengthening economic relations to resolve their divergence over Taiwan, Tibet, human rights and regional tensions over the South China Sea. For the United States, China is an essential factor of the resolution of North Korea question, terrorism, regional stability and the treatment of the global economy deficiencies.
  • In the context of the Chinese concerns of the West, during his second visit to the United Kingdom, Chinese President Xi has agreed to fund one-third of the new British nuclear plant project which includes two reactors implemented by the French electricity company, at (Hinckley Point C nuclear station), south of England.
  • China Public Company of Nuclear Energy contributes, alone, by 2.8 billion Euros, which is considered an unprecedented commitment for a project of such strategic importance in the West.
  • Other projects between Britain and China of about 40 billion Euros have been signed including: energy, maritime transport and industry, which enable Britain to obtain 3,900 jobs.
  • Britain has organized an unprecedented festivity to receive the Chinese President, although some British expressed their refusal to such a relationship depending on economic interests more than the defense of fundamental human rights issues.

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